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Chinese Antique(Ming・Qing Dynasty)

中国古美術(明・清時代)

Ming Dynasty
Qing Dynasty

Chinese Antique(Ming・Qing Dynasty)

https://tenpyodo.com/en/product1/cat/china/(Handled Items ⇒ Chinese Antique)


Tenryu-ji Celadon

Tenryu-ji celadon is celadon that was fired in the longquan kiln between the late yuan dynasty and the middle ming dynasty. The name comes from the fact that a large amount of this kind of celadon was shipped on the trade ship “Tenryu-ji Ship” under the guise of building tenryu-ji during the period of the northern and southern courts. There is also a theory that the name comes from the ukibotande incense burner that Muso Soseki brought to tenryu-ji temple. The celadon produced by longquan kiln also grew in size during the yuan dynasty, and is characterized by a thick devitrifying greenish glaze. Kinuta celadon was based on a plain design, but tenryu-ji celadon was mass produced in response to the general trend of demanding decoration. “Tobi Celadon”, in which iron spots are scattered on the glaze surface, is also a decoration method that characterizes tenryu-ji celadon.


Shichikan Celadon

Shichikan celadon is celadon that was fired in the longquan kiln mainly during the late ming dynasty. It is known that the origin of the name is said to have been brought to japan by an official of the seventh rank(Chinese official). It has a blue glaze with a strong luster and a sense of transparency like vidro. Kinuta celadon and tenryu-ji celadon have no cracks on the glaze surface, but shichikan celadon has many cracks on the glaze surface. Incense burner, incense container, vase, stationery, and other literati favorites form the core of the wares.


万暦赤絵

万暦赤絵とは明時代後期の万暦年間(1573~1620)に景徳鎮官窯で焼成された五彩です。
嘉靖年間(1522~66)から万暦年間は五彩の全盛期であり、
華やかさを求めた作風は荘厳美麗を極めるかのように各々の色彩が共鳴し、
龍鳳、花鳥、魚藻、人物故事、八宝、吉祥、花籠文等が器面を覆い尽くしています。
嘉靖年間や隆慶年間(1567~72)で同様の特徴を持つ五彩も「万暦赤絵」と総括されてきました。
その濃艶な赤絵は高く評価され、
伊万里焼の上絵付けに大きな影響を及ぼした他、
茶の湯を嗜む政財界人も茶器や水指を好んで所有しました。
志賀直哉は小説『万暦赤絵』を書き、
梅原龍三郎は「万暦赤絵」の花瓶をモチーフとして繰り返し描いた事で知られます。


Kosometsuke

Kosometsuke refers to the blue and white(sometsuke)porcelain that were fired at the Jingdezhen kiln in china, mainly during the late ming dynasty’s tianqi era(1621-27). These works were made especially for japan and many of them remain in the country. In contrast to the qing dynasty’s blue and white porcelains, known as shin-watari(new-watari), a unique group belonging to the old style ko-watari(old-watari) blue and white porcelains are now independently referred to as “Kosometsuke”. These porcelains can be broadly divided into tea utensils ordered by master of tea ceremony and everyday items.The kosometsuke of tea utensils, which were popular among the japanese, have a thick and heavy overall appearance, possibly due to the use of a thick clay base. At the end of the ming dynasty, there was a trend among japanese master of tea ceremony to order and fire unique tea utensils, with each master of tea ceremony ordering their preferred tools. Many kosometsuke works have glaze peeling off due to differences in the shrinkage rates of the clay and glaze, exposing the inner clay. This phenomenon, which resembles the appearance of being eaten by worms, is called “Mushikui(worm eaten)”. One characteristic is that mushikui(some holes)can often be found in areas where the glaze is thinly applied, such as the rim or angular parts. While this might be considered a flaw in ordinary porcelains, master of tea ceremony found elegance in this natural phenomenon and appreciated the rough taste, valuing it as an aesthetic effect.


Tenkei-Akae

Tenkei-akae refers to the overglaze enamels porcelain that were fired at the jingdezhen kiln in china, mainly during the late ming dynasty’s tianqi era(1621-27). Colors such as red, green, yellow, and black are added to match the blue and white of the base, and the work is characterized by a free spirited style that is stylish and tasteful. During this era, with the fall of the Wanli Emperor, the jingdezhen imperial kiln was closed down, and the civilian kiln took the lead in production and sales. Potters who worked at the jingdezhen imperial kiln moved to the civilian kiln to make a living, leaving behind masterpieces that are reminiscent of the jingdezhen imperial kiln. Most of them belong to the tenkei-akae, kosometsuke, and shonzui. Many tenkei-akae works have glaze peeling off due to differences in the shrinkage rates of the clay and glaze, exposing the inner clay. This phenomenon, which resembles the appearance of being eaten by worms, is called “Mushikui(worm eaten)”. One characteristic is that mushikui(some holes)can often be found in areas where the glaze is thinly applied, such as the rim or angular parts. While this might be considered a flaw in ordinary porcelains, master of tea ceremony found elegance in this natural phenomenon and appreciated the rough taste, valuing it as an aesthetic effect.

Tenkei-Akae-1
Tenkei-Akae-2

南京赤絵

南京赤絵とは明時代末期から清時代初期に景徳鎮民窯で焼成された五彩磁器です。
狭義には天啓赤絵や色絵祥瑞とは区別される傾向にあります。
名称の由来は明王朝の都が南京にあった事から、
中国から渡来した色絵(五彩)磁器という漠然としたものです。
透明度のある純白釉を掛け、色絵のみで構成されているものが多く、
染付はあまり使用されません。
欧州向けは主に壺、盤、水注、花瓶、大徳利、蓋物等の大作が中心を成し、
日本向けは食器や茶道具から構成されています。


Gosu-Akae

Gosu-akae refers to the overglaze enamels porcelain that were fired at the zhangzhou kiln in china, mainly during the late ming dynasty. The style is said to have been developed from the ko-akae and kinrande of the jingdezhen kiln. Basically, blue and white is not used, and a thick milky white devitrified glaze is applied inside and outside. The overglaze is based on red, with green and blue added, and the relaxed depiction gives a sense of style. On rare occasions, the red bead design is overlaid with gold leaf. Because the works were fired with large particles of sand, which is strong in iron, placed on the bottom, there may be sand attached to the bottom. There are also examples of compositions depicting japanese characters for “Tenkaichi” and arabic characters, indicating that the main commercial areas were southeast asia and japan. Among them, gosu-akae is preferred and prized in japan, and japanese master of tea ceremony especially value the tamatori lion bowl and sakigakede bowl.


Gosude

Gosude refers to the crude porcelain that were fired at the zhangzhou kiln in china, mainly during the late ming dynasty. Works such as gosu-akae, gosu-sometsuke, and mochihanade are known, and the main trading area was southeast asia and japan. In europe and the united states, it is called “Swatow Ware” after its export port, shantou port in guangdong province. The most likely theory is that during the edo period, southern china was called “Go” so it came to be called “Gosude” meaning pottery from southern china.


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